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The Science And History Of Transfer Factor
*Test results obtained from two independent NK cell studies conducted by Anatoll Voroblev, head of immunology, at the Russian Academy of Medical Science. The blind studies tested 4Life Transfer Factor Advanced Formulas (Transfer Factor E-XF proprietary blend of both cow colostrum and egg yolk sources) and other immune system products.
*The above chart includes the results of a study conducted by Jeunesse Inc. Institute of Longevity Medicine. This study examined the ability of nutrients to increase the effectiveness of the immune system's natural killer cells. 196 of the most popular nutrients were tested. These nutrients were tested in blood in the presence of live cancer cells.
4Life® is very excited to bring you the most exciting health and wellness product ever brought to market. 4Life® is founded upon a strong scientific philosophy of product research and development. Transfer Factor®, our flagship product, comes to us only after nearly 50 years of research and over 3,500 scientific medical papers on the transfer factor molecules it contains which proves its effectiveness. 4Life® originally licensed the only patent which identifies transfer factor in colostrum and the only exclusive and proprietary method for extracting transfer factor from colostrum.
From The Transfer Factor Report
Our health is directly influenced by our immune system. A balanced and healthy immune system is central to the body's ability to defend against infections. "It is our ability to create a healthy immune system that represents the greatest potential for gains in human health."1
Fortunately, recent research has uncovered a natural agent that can improve the quality of life for many people. Transfer factor is the name given to this relatively new agent. It is found in colostrum and other sources and is a natural way of strengthening our immune systems.
What is Transfer Factor?
Transfer factor is the most exciting health discovery in recent decades. Transfer factors are small immune messenger molecules that are produced by higher organisms.2 Their role is to transfer immune recognition signals between immune cells and thereby assist in educating naive immune cells about a present or potential danger.
In the harsh and hostile environment in which a baby suddenly finds itself, invading microorganisms could rapidly overcome and destroy the new life. Nature has provided a procedure to rapidly educate the infant's naive immune system. Prior to delivering a baby, the expectant mother prepares a natural immunizing cocktail that she includes in the first milk (colostrum) she provides to her new baby. Transfer factor is a key part of this process.
Dr. C. H. Kirkpatrick determined that transfer factors were small peptides of about eight amino acid residues.7 Eighteen different amino acids have been represented which may combine to create billions of different transfer factors. These very small transfer factor molecules contain the essence of the immunological message.
Transfer factors do not elicit an allergic response and are not species-specific. What this means is that transfer factors produced by a cow are just as effective in humans as they would be in another cow. This exciting ability could spark a revolution in medicine.
Overview of the Immune System
The immune system is a multifaceted system comprised of more than a trillion cells, with a collective weight of about 1 kg (2.2 pounds).2 There are three essential properties of the immune system: recognizing a challenge to the immune system, reacting to that challenge, and remembering that challenge to react more quickly next time the body is exposed to it.
Within the immune system there are two separate responses to abnormal or foreign substances. The first response is called the humoral immune reaction which involves the production of immunoglobulins, often referred to as "antibodies." The second response is the cellular immune response, or cell-mediated immunity (CMI). This response depends on communication between various types of immune system cells (lymphocytes).
Overview of the Immune System
An immature immune response may take 10-14 days to fully develop. This is what is called delayed hypersensitivity. Such a delay is not always healthy, as can be attested to by anyone who has fought a cold or flu for two weeks or more. Transfer factors can help because they include both inducer/helper functions (Inducer Factors) and a suppressor function (Suppressor Factor).9 The Inducer Factor is the transfer factor component that translates an apparently mature immune response from the donor to the recipient. Transfer factors have been shown to induce an immune response in less than 24 hours.9 Nevertheless, an overactive immune response to innocuous agents such as pollens or even our own body cells is not healthy. Thus, both Inducer Factor and Suppressor Factor are part of an immunoregulatory network that keeps our immune system balanced.
Colostrum, the first milk produced by mammals, is a rich source of transfer factors.11 The role of the transfer factors in colostrum is to imprint on the infant immune system the recognition codes it needs to identify pathogens as hostile invaders.12 In an infant, initial immunity is established rapidly if the baby is allowed to nurse. Infants who are not breast-fed consistently show a greater susceptibility to infections and allergies.
The immunoglobulins found in colostrum can (and do) cause allergic reactions in other species. They are the source of most cow-milk allergies in humans.3 Transfer factors, on the other hand, are not allergenic. In addition, as would be expected from the discovery of transfer factors in colostrum, it has been shown that transfer factors are equally effective whether administered by injection or taken orally.7 13 It has also been shown that a long-term oral administration of transfer factor preparations is safe.14 15 Infants and the elderly are the two groups especially at risk for infections. Oral administration of transfer factor is convenient and easily accepted by these age groups.16
The History of Transfer Factor
Dr. H. Sherwood Lawrence discovered that an immune response could be transferred from a donor to a recipient by injecting an extract of leucocytes.6 The extract was postulated to contain a factor capable of transferring the donor's immunity to the recipient. Lawrence called this substance transfer factor, the term now used by scientists.
Thousands of papers have been published on the use of transfer factors. Early on, results were erratic--everything from a complete and miraculous cure to a complete and total failure could be expected. The promise of transfer factor as the answer to all our immunological problems seemed too good to be true. A number of conditions were working against scientists that were exploring the potential of transfer factor. Three of these conditions are especially noteworthy: 1) complexity, 2) quality control, and 3) conventional bias.
Transfer factor extracts are complex, containing an estimated 200 or more individual transfer factors; not a single chemical entity like a standard pharmaceutical drug. Just as in nature, synergy between parts is the key. Separating natural products into their individual components often diminishes either efficacy (as in the case of St. John's wort and hypericum) or safety (as in the case of foxglove and digitalis). This may also be true for transfer factors. Indicative of this is the recent discovery of two, new, potent, transfer factor molecules, IMREG I and IMREG II.17 Each of these molecules has its own specific function and purpose in a balanced immune system.
The second hurdle that had to be overcome was one of quality control. No reliable assay was available to test whether the extract was properly prepared. This problem was overcome by Wilson and Fudenberg, who were issued a patent for their discovery.18
The third issue is a matter of intellectual bias, often seen when a new concept or discovery is introduced. The idea of transfer factors simply flies in the face of conventional immunology. We could draw a parallel between medieval biases and those of today. In the 14th century, the Black Plague killed a quarter of the European population.19 Attempts to deal with the Plague were blocked by superstitious adherence to conventional beliefs. Similarly, the progress of transfer factor research has been inhibited by the conventional dogmas of immunology. Even now this bias stifles progress that could be made in critical areas. In a recent international symposium on transfer factors, Dr. D. Viza stated,
At the end of the 20th century, the triumph of biology is indisputable. . . . However, the triumph of biological science is far from being complete. The toll of several diseases, such as cancer, continues to rise.
Just as clear evidence suggested a solution in dealing with the Black Plague, so too clear evidence indicates a potential solution to our modern plagues. We must take individual responsibility for our own health by strengthening our immune systems. This is the most critical health issue we face and transfer factor can play a major role in maintaining our immediate and long-term health.
1 Personal communication with Richard Bennet, Ph.D. (11/17/97).
2 Immunology, Immunopathology and Immunity. Sell S. Appleton and Lange: Stamford CT 1996.
3Allergenicity of orally administered immunoglobulin preparations in food-allergic children. Bernhisel-Broadbent J, Yolken RH, Sampson HA. Pediatrics 1991, 87(2), 208-14.
4 Transfer Factor in the Era of AIDS. Pizza G, Viza D. Biotherapy 1996, 9(1-3), ix-x.
5 Immunology in a Nutshell. Eberhand Wecker. Mannheim: BI. Wissenschaftverlag. 1992.
6 The cellular transfer of cutaneous hypersensitivity to tuberculin in man. Lawerence HS. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1949, 71, 516.
7 Activities and characteristics of Transfer Factors. Kirkpatrick CH. Biotherapy 1996, 9(1-3), 13-6.
8 A) Reasons for the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Tenover FC, McGowan JE Jr. Am J Med Sci 1996, 311(1), 9-16. B) Medline Search 1994-1997.
9 Transfer Factor--current status and future prospects. Lawrence HS, Borkowsky W. Biotherapy 1996, 9(1-3), 1-5.
10 Emerging Foodborne Diseases: An Evolving Public Health Challenge. Tauxe RV.The National Conference on Emerging Foodborne Pathogens: Implications and Control, March 24-26, 1997, Alexandria, Virginia, USA Emerging Infectious Diseases 1997, 3(4)
11 Personal communication from Drs. Greg Wilson and Gary Paddock.
12 Transfer Factor: Past, Present and Future. Fudenberg HH, Fudenberg HH. Ann Rev Pharm Tox 1989, 475-516.
13 Murine Transfer Factors: dose-response relationships and routes of administration. Kirkpatrick C H, Hamad AR, Morton LC. Cell Immunol 1995, 164(2), 203-6.
14 In vitro studies during long-term oral administration of specific Transfer Factor. Pizza G, De Vinci C, Fornarola V, Palareti A, Baricordi O, Viza D. Biotherapy 1996, 9(1-3), 175-85.
15 Oral bovine Transfer Factor (OTF) use in the hyper-IgE syndrome. Jones JF, et al. In: Immunobiology of Transfer Factor. Academic Press: New York. 1983, pp 261-70.
16 Observation of the effect of PSTF oral liquor on the positive tuberculin test reaction. Wu S, Zhong X. Chung Kuo I Hsueh Ko Hsueh Yuan Hsueh Pao 1992, 14(4), 314-6.
17 Modulation of concanavalin A-induced, antigen--non-specific regulatory cell activity by leuenkephalin and related peptides. Sizemore RC, et al. Clin Imm Im 1991, 60(2), 310-18.
18 Use of In Vitro Assay Techniques to Measure Parameters Related to Clinical Applications of Transfer Factor Therapy. Wilson GB, Fudenberg HH. US Patent 4610878. Sept. 9, 1986.
19 Infectious Disease as an Evolutionary Paradigm. Lederberg J. The National Conference on Emerging Foodborne Pathogens: Implications and Control, March 24-26, 1997, Alexandria, Virginia, USA Emerging Infectious Diseases vol 3(4)
20 AIDS and Transfer Factor: myths, certainties and realities. Viza D. Biotherapy 1996, 9(1-3), 17-26.
21The emergent needs for basic research, education, and surveillance of antimicrobial resistance. Problems facing the report from the American Society for Microbiology Task Force on Antibiotic Resistance. Jones RN. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 1996,(25) 153-61.
"Through the research that Dr. Wilson and I have done in the development and characterization of Colostral TF, we have patented this technology. This patent includes the manufacture and use of Colostral TF, and this patent has been licensed to 4Life."
Dr. Gary Paddock
Transfer Factor Patent Holder